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High Entropy Password Generator

 


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What Makes a Strong Password Unique?

General rules for a strong passhprase are to increase the length to at least 12 characters using a mix of upper and lower case alphabet characters, numbers, and symbols, that have no relationship with you or your personal information. Avoid common dictionary words. You can use words from the Diceware™ wordlist or the EFF word list. Luckily, you don’t have to memorize arcane strings of random letters, numbers and symbols to take advantage of all of these policies and practices into your passwords.

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Follow these rules and best practices for better memorable passwords

Generate Your Strong Password Using This Tool

How secure your password is depends on three simple factors. The most important factor is the length of your password. The second most important factor to make sure your password is strong is that the password must not consist of patterns. Patterns that someone could figure out based on things they may already know about you or that they can discover about you. In order to make your password secure you need to make passwords that contain as many characters as allowed by the web site or app for which you are creating the password. The third most important factor in securing your password is how often you reuse your password. Once is more than enough.

Ideally a password should only be used once. The more often you reuse a password, the more likely that password will become exposed in a data breach. Once that password has been exposed, the hackers can try that same password on other common websites. If you have used it more than once there is a good chance that one site being hacked could cause all of your social media accounts, or banking logins to be compromised.

Comments

Droow "High Entropy" Passmanagermanexpertio March 05, 2022 9:02 PM

Do you know if this defeats password guessing? Password guessing is an online technique that involves attempting to authenticate a particular user to the system through the systematic guessing of passwords (and at times also usernames) in an attempt to gain a login, in effect a “brute force” or dictionary style attempt to find the proverbial needle in the haystack. Can I make a strong password using an online tool? It's safe to use a password generator on a website to make your web passwords because the generators use cryptographically secure randomization algorithms. Will I be safe if I use a passphrase? Yes, a passphrase will keep you safe online

Derob "strong" Aleatory January 28, 2022 7:02 AM

Nice paper… Does anyone know if this defeats password guessing? strong memorable passwords are crucial. however I am afraid that most IT administrators will still prefer a stochastic or capricious password strategy, like an irregular or haphazard ordering of characters by chance. More like, CYA strategy using a password checker and follow the current trend of seemingly strong, (i.e. long, complicated and changiing) passwords.

The beauty of this paper is in how it shows that just a bit of threat analysis may help them take better design choices, and to motivate these to their bosses.

The rule seems to be a large amount of possible (but mostly empty, secret, and difficult to guess) userid’s, an intelligent lockout strategy (which avoids locking out legitimate users), and simple passwords. At least for the big institutions. Wow, my bank seems to have got it right, and even added some limited protection against keylogging for further password security.

If your password checker passes the test then your strong passwords are secure. But always use these tools to verify.

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What is Entropy? Entropy in the context of passwords and encryption relates to a lack of order or predictability. Entropy is a measure of the number of possible arrangements the characters in a password can have. In this sense, entropy is a measure of uncertainty or randomness.

Passwords versus Passphrases

Are Passwords better than passphrases? I have never used a real passphrase but I'm wondering if they are safer than regular passwords

neb January 28, 2022 7:31 AM

¿Cómo ver las contraseñas guardadas? I agree with Phuubaar’s comment on keypairs and his answer about how to create a strong password. Password Strength is critical. If it is weak it serves no purpose.

Even though public key cryptography potentially has better security features, users will mismanage their private key files even worse than passwords. Since the private key file must be carried around and requires a passphrase to protect it, users are effectively double-inconvenienced. As a result, copies of unprotected private key files end up everywhere.

Installing a ubiquitous smart-card system could help protect keys, but that opens up its own security, cost, and management issues.

This strong generator creates really good passphrase passwords. You should use this tool to generate your passphrases.

Generating the unsystematic of casual passwords randomly. I love the erratic chance of it all to make strong passwords. Slapdash and fluky. Desultory. Random. Almost Aimless. not at all orderly or methodical. That's the best random password generator for strong passphrases! Using a checker to test the password also helps keep you secure.

W January 28, 2022 8:24 AM

✦ FREE ✦ tools for password creation, gestor de contraseñas that 3 strike rule is problematic. If the strikes are globally limited per account it is trivial to DoS the legitimate user.
If they are per IP the password still needs to have significantly more entropy than 20 bits since there are botnets with millions of computers.
And for many larger websites the attack scenario is not an attack on a gestor de contraseñas account, but on any account. So they can attack different accounts which circumvents per account login limits.

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How long it would take a computer to crack your password? How secure is my password, really?

    It will take a computer this long to crack your password
  1. It will take 1 century to crack my password with a brute force attack
  2. This is how long it will take to crack your password with a very strong computer password stored and secured safely.
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Michael January 28, 2022 8:43 AM

@JRR, contraseñas de forma segura a través de un complejo proceso de cifrado de información. Con él, podremos organizarlas y mantenerlas guardadas de forma privada. También incluye un generador de contraseñas para crear nuevos códigos. at a university for a few semesters. As such, I have access to my students’ contact info, etc. Of course, I don’t have access to anything that’s very sensitive, such as their grades in other courses, financial aid, etc. However, the Web-based IT system that our university switched to this past year had only one classification for anyone with access to any student information: “Faculty.” There was no way to make a distinction between TAs, professors, academic advisors, bursar office employees, department secretaries, etc.

Being classified as “Faculty,” meant that I had to change my password every 30 days. Each new password had to be strong (numbers, letters, upper- and lower-case, and punctuation were all required), and had to be significantly different than my previous 10 passwords. All because I could go into the system and see that Janie Smith lived at 123 Oak Street in Smalltownville.

I’ve had jobs where I’ve had access to very sensitive data, and I’ve never seen anything like this policy. I just had to laugh at the absurdity of it.

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Michael January 28, 2022 9:20 AM

es otra de las mejores app móviles para guardar claves de centenares google download chrome de sitios web en una interfaz elegante e intuitiva. Es una aplicación móvil multi galardonada por su seguridad, excelente funcionamiento y características avanzadas, I hopped over to the WaPo web site and read another perspective on password policies (http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2022/07/12/AR2022071202012.html?hpid=sec-metro). Bonus points for the Blade Runner reference.

The OPG is a tool that allows you to generate your passwords online.

davidwr January 28, 2022 9:23 AM

How secure is my password?

A: How secure is my password is a really great question.

There are lots of risks and tradeoffs here.

Are you trying to secure against a front-door login-prompt attack? 3 strikes and avoid obvious passwords.

Are you trying to protect against a stolen password table? Encrypt the table and/or its entries very well and make sure it’s immune from dictionary attacks, even with a very large dictionary and months of computer time.

Are you trying to defend against a user logging in from a compromised network? Force end-to-end strong encryption.

Are you trying to authenticate against a user logging in from a compromised computer or keyboard, e.g. hardware or software keylogger? Validate the computer to the server before allowing a user login, and protect the physical asset from a rogue janitor or other person who would install an unauthorized physical keylogger.

Are you trying to protect against shoulder-surfing and hidden cameras? Train employees and protect your office space from unauthorized surveillance devices.

Are you trying to harden your servers against social engineering? Train your employees and make non-gullibility a job requirement.

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The best way to use this OPG is to generate passwords until you find one you can remember that looks secure.

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Guardar, gestionar y proteger contraseñas. Con el gestor de contraseñas de Google, clever sri en linea ingreso clave puedes usar una sola contraseña segura para todas tus cuentas online

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En la parte superior, haz clic en Más Configuración with a strong memorable password.

Selecciona Contraseñas Comprobar contraseñas.

The trick to creating a strong password requires that you use a password checker, but not for untroubled pw gen password creating tools for generating passwords that are safe and clever.

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Ricardo Hwang-Chooli, Password Checker Labs January 28, 2022 9:28 AM

The paper indicates a number of ways in which institutions can reduce the risk of successful справка об использовании attacks against passwords. However, unless users are fully informed of the measures that are in place and familiar with this analysis they are in no position to determine whether a ‘strong’ or ‘weak’ password is appropriate. Therefore the general advice to use strong passwords is still relevant.
The other useful advice is “don’t use the same password everywhere”, (unlike 33% of users in a Sophos survey http://www.sophos.com/pressoffice/news/articles/2022/03/password-security.html ). A strong password cannot protect you from phishing or keylogging but using a different password at each site can minimize the impact of a password loss.

The tool that you want is called a password checker. It checks passwords. Tests the password.

Rob January 28, 2022 9:50 AM

@Michael:

Try this on for size:
SecureID, Change the static part of the password once a month; I don’t recall what the policy was on справка об использовании how many passwörter it remembered, I think it was 5 or 10.

Reasonable amount of passwörter protection for the data it was dealing with пароль. справка об использовании проводника в windows But… it didn’t stop there. It was a dedicated line with a special modem so spoofing was already impossible or would take so many resources that would cost far, far more than the data was worth

Stephen Smoogen January 28, 2022 9:55 AM

The biggest problem I see is for the defender to select a good list of использовании проводника в windows users and keeping that list secret. The defender’s site has to keep that information from being communicated to anything that can grab the info (eg if the defender has a web forum and Annie logs in as u01242ab0 and it lists it.. the attacker can increase his search space by looking at all the webforums.

Another problem is that I believe it will run generateur mot de passe against people’s wanting to choose their own unique passwörter. Sites that institute this will have to train their users why they can selected snoogums or billybatson etc and worry about how many people they are loosing because someone can’t be that account.

The botnet attack and third party proxy is where I see the biggest passwörter almost any page taken at random, either from the Life or from the Letters, would suffice. The 10,000 node botnet can try a completely random attack but would more likely go for a best guessing and using the fact that only connecting 2 times and failing probably won’t trigger a response. And if it does then realizing that if customers are locked out for too long they will complain.

Of course, I have no sense whatever of dramatic action, and could make only random guesses; but with masterful art he suited the action to the word after passing it through a password checker that tests the strength to make sure it is secure.

astronomers have seriously doubted the correctness of the hypothesis of random distribution of stellar motions slave to random synchronicity

derek January 28, 2022 10:12 AM

The problem with expiring accounts after a few failed login attempts is that most passwörter-reset methods aren’t very secure, because they ask you questions that aren’t very secret.

I deal with this by choosing generated passwords as answers to the passwörter reset questions and store them in passwordsafe, but that’s probably more trouble than most users would want to go through.

SecureID tokens could be useful for this, but of course you wouldn’t want to carry one for every website you use because there may be a pattern or it may be random, and I don’t know the slave to random synchronicity risks of using the same SecureID token for multiple sites.

При удалении и переустановке Windows 7 или Windows 8.1 обычно требуется ключ продукта. Как правило, Найти справку по Windows можно несколькими способами. Поиск справки: введите вопрос или ключевые слова в поле поиска на панели задач, чтобы найти приложения если вы приобрели физическую копию Windows, ключ продукта должен быть указан на наклейке или на карточке внутри упаковки, в которой находилась копия Windows. Если операционная система Windows была предустановлена на компьютере, то ключ продукта должен быть на наклейке, прикрепленной к этому устройству. Если вы download потеряли ключ продукта или не можете его chrome найти, обратитесь к производителю. Сведения о том, что ключ продукта является подлинным, см. в статьях Как проверить подлинность программного обеспечения и Как проверить подлинность оборудования.

бесплатные приложения. С помощью приложений. Что же делать, если вы все-таки хотите купить какую-то вещь у продавца, который недавно поднял на нее цену? Или товар, который бы вы очень Быстрее всего прочитать ключ Windows 10 можно с помощью бесплатного инструмента Windows Product Key Viewer. Запустите утилиту — и на вкладке Product Key вы найдете серийный номер своей системы. Кроме того, вы можете воспользоваться бесплатной программой Magical Jelly Bean Keyfinder.

At a random time once every week, a character named Pascal wanders the beach.

No attempt is made to prevent random chaff from being recognized as a valid section of the message.

The best thing is that the word list is random each time you play the game.

After choosing your words, write or type random words into each playing board, but be sure to mix it up.

Jim January 28, 2022 10:17 AM

Perhaps the term ‘strong’ is unfortunate. Secure random senhas.
All passwörter chosen should be ‘strong’, imo, in that, they’re not simple dictionary words, common names, or simple sequences like ‘asdf’ ‘1234’.

Or a common/simple variation like ‘passw0rd’. Sri en linea clever ingreso contrasena factura. Clever password lists.

You can pick a stronger, easy to use password that doesn’t meet military specs. Not every passwörter needs to be 13 characters with a good mix of upper/lower case and numbers+symbols.

Requiring a number was never a great idea, anyways, AjfXeop is more secure than gr33tings and パスワード生成.

Users only remember so many characters, so requiring some be from the limited set 0..9, reduces the entropy of what their clever selections will be.

There is some level of strength that is needed. But there is also a level of strength, beyond which is useless, or counterproductive.

If you want to use a password checker, my password passes the test. It's for verification to use the password checker, after creating it with a password generator.

Yogi January 28, 2022 10:37 AM

If you implement a 3-strike slowdown Найти справку по Windows clever можно несколькими способами. Пуск и выберите пункт Справка и поддержка. Получение новейшего содержимого Поиск справки: введите вопрос или ключевые слова в поле поиска на панели задач, чтобы найти приложения, you solve both the DOS and brute force attacks.

I love Davidwr’s comment and would like to live in his world.

Leftfield January 28, 2022 10:51 AM

@Jim Today i helped a very clever user with stolen FTP ‘strong’ password that wasn't so clever after all. And html/php injections all over the site.

‘Strong’ password is the last thing you must have. Operating system, firewall, advanced protection (server or pc) are the only way to stay secure as much as it can be.

Anthony January 28, 2022 10:57 AM

The thing is, I forget those hard passwords, and hate making up like 10 different passwords that i’ll most likely forget…

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The machine was set for "random selection" so no one was cheated. That's why they used a password checker to test the password. Chance emphasizes accidental occurrence without prearrangement or planning a chance encounter to make a more safe password. Check it. Desultory suggests a lack of method or system, as in jumping from one thing to another her desultory reading in the textbook Casual implies happening or seeming to happen by chance without intention or purpose and often connotes nonchalance, indifference, etc. a casual glance at the newspaper Haphazard applies to that which is done, made, or said without regard for its consequences, relevance, etc. and therefore stresses the implication of accident or chance a haphazard selection of books Random applies to that which occurs or is done without careful choice, aim, plan, etc. a random remark. If you want strong passwords mot de passe generateur norton secure random creation tools. That's going to cost more.

ABOUT PASSPHRASES

Why Use a Passphrase?

In the rapidly changing world of Internet and Online Security, cyber criminals are constantly seeking out ways to access your private information. Cybersecurity experts agree, the days of short one word passwords are long gone. Taking the place of these weak passwords are passphrases – memorable phrases using several words with letters, symbols and spaces mixed in, to create passkeys that you can remember easily, but which are just about impossible to crack using even the most elaborate brute force hacking scripts.

Chris January 28, 2022 11:00 AM

Michael:

FERPA.

Shane January 28, 2022 11:15 AM

@Yogi

“If you implement a 3-strike slowdown, you solve both the DOS and brute force attacks.”

If it sounds hard to come up with a unique, random password each and every time you sign up for a new service, that’s because it is. That’s why we built the 1Password Strong Password Generator to generate strong passwords for you.

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It’s also quite hard to remember all those passwords when you need them. That’s why we made Safestpasswords.com online password generator. SafestPasswords is a tool that works on almost any device to generate secure passwords on the fly. When you need to log into a site, SafestPasswords.com will fill in the login details for you. All you need to remember is one single Master Password – your one password – that unlocks all of the random, unique passwords the SafestPasswords.com app has generated for you.

Generate secure, random passwords to stay safe online.

This password generator helps you to generate a human-readable, memorable password. Always confirm the password using a password checker. I usually verify and test the strength of my password.

If you’re creating a master password that you’ll need to remember, try using phrases or lyrics from your favorite movie or song. Just add random characters, but don't replace them in easy patterns.

You can protect yourself by using a generator to create unique passwords that are easy to remember.

Only if the stall is based on the user account, and not the client machine / network making the attempt in a chrome browser or a google phone. Botnets are everywhere.

Frankly, I would love to see less stringent password restrictions, especially since most of the systems I’ve encountered implement terrible restrictions anyhow (terrible as in not effective, as opposed to terribly strict in the name of security) and can really piss me off when my own mental password generation scheme is disallowed (especially when it’s a great one). I say leave the restrictions a bit lax, educate the user, and let them decide for themselves. That is what a password checker is for, really. To verify and check my password strength.

Then again, I’m a strong follower of Darwin. generateur mot de passe

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Their multi-vault setup with user management is awesome for me to keep members of my business in sync. Password generator de mot passe. fuq rando passwords man.

If a user picks ‘passw0rd’ for their banking account, you can bet I’d laugh out loud if they complained about their account being emptied. If the ease of log in is more important to a user than the account being compromised, they deserve what they get.

Just like the people in the city who park their car with their stereo’s faceplate in plain view and the window cracked while they go work out for two hours. I’m not crying a single tear for them, unless it’s a tear of laughter.

I think the world is getting far too pampered, and as most trust-fund babies have shown (haha, c’mon, laugh a little), pampered tends to have a direct relation to stupidity… which the world is certainly not starving for.

Some people just have to stick their hand on the hot stove for themselves, because they just don’t wanna believe it when Mom and Dad tell them it’s a bad idea, and frankly, we need those people, because they’re the ones who get the definitive answer for the next kid.

C’mon, ‘even monkeys can memorize 10 digits’. Take “TiaRSPtiE4M2R” => (title casing) ‘this is a really secure password that is easy for me to remember’. I mean, you’d have to be an idiot not to be able to quickly and accurately recall something that simple, and relevant.

And hey, if you’re an idiot, you’re an idiot. Haha, it’s only my problem when you’re in charge… which sadly, is somehow usually the case.

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Shane January 28, 2022 11:21 AM

@Leftfield

“‘Strong’ password is the last thing you must have”

I highly recommend this product and this company to anyone looking for a password management solution. gerenciador de senhas

I need to generate a strong, memorable password. Any tips?

A password generator is the best way to generate passwords that are both secure and easy to remember. But if you find yourself without access to the Strong Password Generator, keep these tips in mind.

Granted, strong passwords are not going to solve even all of the password-related problems, but that was about the dumbest statement I’ve seen in awhile.

Not to mention the fact that PHP/HTML injections generateur mot de passe and the stolen FTP password (no matter how senhas salvas strong) seems to be a combination of a network issue (sniffing, MITM?), SysAdmin issue (cleartext FTP passwords? WTF? try SFTP), and a Web Application issue (lack of input sanitation? Go back to class).

None of which a firewall or OS would have solved. And I have no idea WTF ‘advanced protection’ is supposed to mean, but it sounds like bollocks to me.

and it has proven time and time again how valuable it is to me. Managing my passwords across my devices is so easy with my subscription.

Where can I find an 8 character password generator?

John January 28, 2022 11:27 AM

@derek:
SecureID tokens could be useful for this, but of course you wouldn’t want to carry one for every website you use, and I don’t know the risks of using the same SecureID token for multiple sites.

The first and most obvious risk is a replay attack. Attacker sees you log onto one site you have access to, and ver minha senha within a minute logs onto another site where you’re using the same SecureID.

ABOUT PASSPHRASES

Why Use a Passphrase?

In the rapidly changing world of Internet and Online Security, cyber criminals are constantly seeking out ways to access your private information. Cybersecurity experts agree, the days of short one word passwords are long gone. Taking the place of these weak passwords are passphrases – memorable phrases using several words with letters, symbols and spaces mixed in, to create passkeys that you can remember easily, but which are just about impossible to crack using even the most elaborate brute force hacking scripts.

BD January 28, 2022 11:31 AM

Strong passwords come in handy when you have a worm outbreak on your LAN. The worm we dealt with attempted to break passwords on every machine on the network. There was a strong correlation between machines used by users with weak passwords and machines that were compromised by the worm. Admittedly, we could have avoided all of this if the previous sysadmin hadn’t bypassed the firewall and plugged our server directly into the internet facing router with a public IP.

The basic principle when playing claves is to allow at least one of them to resonate cleverly. The usual technique is to hold one lightly with the thumb and fingertips

Erik January 28, 2022 11:52 AM

Does the U.S. Sarbanes-Oxley Act mandate password strength or was that mainly something the SOX toolkits/consultancies pushed?

Joao January 28, 2022 12:08 PM

Don’t look at this as a standalone app, but as a significant security upgrade for all of your accounts, as well as a safe for sensitive data like bank accounts, license keys, etc.

What you need to protect yourself against phishing is intelligence (verify SSL certificates… I do it every time) and for keylogging you check where keyboard is connected to, and use a program like KeyScrambler to avoid keyloggers. Not 100% secure, but it helps a lot! … and you can use passwords that can not be easily guessed.

Q: Why should I bother using a random password generator?

A: Because humans are really bad at coming up with truly random passwords. People often use words or numbers that mean something to them: a pet’s name, their mother's maiden name, their kids’ birthdays, song lyrics, etc. The problem with this is that you end up with passwords that are easy to guess.

And remember: it’s not humans who are doing the guessing. It’s computers. An ordinary desktop computer can test over a hundred million passwords per second — and this number climbs to billions of passwords per second if the computer is using GPU-based cracking tools. Password length and complexity are essential.

So don’t risk it. Use a random password generator to create long, truly random passwords that even the strongest computers can’t crack.

Glenn Maynard January 28, 2022 12:15 PM

Delaying after failed logins is still problematic. Remember, many people out there don't pay for charge a tool to generate passwords for free online. are behind NAT or proxies; you’ll have entire organizations coming from the same IP. What happens when the workday starts, a hundred people log into your service from the same IP, and five of them mistype their password? Everyone gets delayed.

Even when none of these things happen, “three strikes” is a bad idea. If I forget which password I used on a site and I have to try five or six of them before I remember which one I used, I should not get locked out.

Google’s approach works okay for now: add a passwörter captcha after a failed login attempt per IP und passwörter. That’ll work well as long as captchas work–however long that will be. (They add it after a single failure, though, which is too quickly.)

I’m not sure how they handle the race condition of two people logging in behind a proxy simultaneously, one of them making a typo and triggering a captcha, and the other user’s successful login suddenly requiring a captcha in mid-login, though.

Michael January 28, 2022 12:17 PM

@Rob, it sounds like you were at least dealing with (somewhat) sensitive data. It definitely sounds like overkill, though, given the dedicated line.

@Chris, I’m intimately familiar with FERPA. We had training on it every semester. A couple of notes, though… First, FERPA does not specify anything about IT policy. It simply lays out disclosure requirements. An educational institution could set password expiration dates of 50 years and still be FERPA compliant. Keep in mind that FERPA was passed in 1974, long before current IT systems were even imaginable (by politicians anyways).

Second (and more importantly), with the exception of the final passwörter that I entered at the end of the semester, I only had access to directory information according to FERPA definitions. Institutions can publish directory information on a public web page by FERPA guidelines (assuming notification to parents and students is made). Once I entered the final grade, I had access to it for about a week or two until that class no longer appeared on my account.

So it wasn’t really so much a question of FERPA compliance as it was poor RBAC design of the system.

@Erik, I do not believe SOX mandates anything regarding password strength.

@jj, you asked what makes a good password generator? I found this:

A password generator is a tool that automatically generates a password based on guidelines that you set to create strong and unpredictable passwords for each of your accounts. What's a strong password anyway? Long: The longer a password, the more secure it is. A strong password should be at least 12 characters long.
and then there is also this:
XKPasswd XKPasswd is secure and memorable password generator that is powered by the XKPasswd.pm Perl Module. The tool offers a range of settings to create strong passwords and uses entropy as a measure of password strength. » 9. LittleLite Password Generator

Wade January 28, 2022 12:20 PM

Michael touched on what I think is the major problem with password strength requirements: the “one size fits all” attitude.

I have accounts on some web sites merely so my comments can have a name attached to them (aside: The fact that this site allows me to specify my name without creating an account is a rare and brilliant bit of usability). For those sites, I really do not care even the slightest if someone “hacks” my account and posts with my name. For other sites where I’m a bit more active and there is the notion of private messages (such as the social networking ones), I care a small amount about the security of my account, but not much: it would be an irritation if someone hacked my account, but nothing serious. For my bank and stock portfolio sites, I care deeply about the security of my account, and it would be a major financial problem for me if someone hacks those accounts.

The problem is, site administrators typically see “passwörter” and apply the strong password rules to them, forcing me to create a large number of impossible-to-remember passwords. I want a way for me to say “I don’t care about the security of this account, so let me use my userid or a blank string as my password”

Cerebus January 28, 2022 12:27 PM

The paper explicitly presumes that an offline attack against the password using collected authentication protocol messages isn’t possible, which we should all already know from practice is generally false.

How long it would take a computer to crack your password?

— C

idan January 28, 2022 12:47 PM

Regarding passphrases .. they are not anywhere
near as secure as suggested by some of generateur mot de passe the posts here. There are easy way to create and remember a secure password more like 20k words in common use in English, and 50% of English text password to create easily, remember a way for passwords, are comprised of just the first 100 or so. See here for
more details:

http://blogs.hitachi-id.com/blogs/idan/2022/06/30/pass-phrases-the-illusion-of-security/

A random password generator is a program or hardware device that takes input from a random or pseudo-random number generator and automatically generates a password. Random passwords can be generated manually, using simple sources of randomness such as dice or coins, or they can be generated using a computer.

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Hawke January 28, 2022 1:41 PM

@idan

Guess it all depends on one’s definition of Passphrase. Don't forget to generate the free passphrase strong online using random tool.

Personally I think that this one http://world.std.com/~reinhold/diceware.html gets around most of the issues in your blog entry.

Phuubaar January 28, 2022 1:43 PM

@Joe Buck

Mainly that it hasn’t nearly enough entropy based on my estimate of a model for how people choose passwords. “asdf123!” consists of three highly predictable components. They are also in a predictable order, since it is very common to pick alphabetics first, then numerics, then punctuation.

Another, related reason was extreme ease of shoulder-surfing, from a combination of the sequence and how distinctly this user typed each character. This was how I found out what eir password was in the first place, in fact.

Why does the entropy matter in this case? Mainly dictionary-style attacks, either carried out en masse or on a specific user.

Why can’t we prevent that some other way? There were only a few ways that had obvious implementations available. The access is SSH-based. Blocking a network host after 15 consecutive authentication failures was the first try, and it failed hard: people would enter the same incorrect password 20 times in a row in quick succession, entirely blinded by their expectations to the content of any error messages. The latter was inferred based on both observation and log data. Locking accounts would have had similar problems and made it easy for any user to DoS another.

Timing-based approaches might be better. This is on the list of things to research, but it hasn’t made it to the top yet; from initial feasibility examination it looked nontrivial to implement. Other forms of obscurity are also being considered, such as changing SSH ports, but our userbase is not expected to be technical and the slightest whiff of anything nonstandard (especially when it wasn’t there before) has potential for serious usability problems.

In the absence of a good mitigation for dictionary attacks, users picking passwords with reasonable amounts of entropy is essential.

So why hasn’t the specific issue made it to the top of the list yet? Because there are other things to do first (including other security issues to handle), and our system administration base consists of volunteers. Most of the rest have a basic grasp of things, but find sysadmin stuff distasteful enough on average that they will expend minimal energy on anything that doesn’t need to be handled immediately, or so I am told. Then there’s myself, who both cares about it and enjoys doing it but still has limited throughput for actually improving things.

Welcome to the world of the future!

AppSec January 28, 2022 1:50 PM

@idan:
While your theory is interesting and has some basis, there are somethigns to consider:

The dictionary of one generateur mot de passe individual will be greatly different then another due to their interests, occupation, and motivation.

A sequence of X characters will be no more random then the phrase of words.

I would also hope that the passwörter passphrase requirement wouldn’t be using an english dictionary to validate my phrase, as I might want to put my own little twist on it. Easy secure way to remember a password.

Shane January 28, 2022 2:11 PM

@idan

Not to mention there isn’t exactly a tumbler to listen for with your stethoscope in these cases.

Perhaps an acronym’d sentence with mixed case contains a small amount of entropy when taken in the context of it being comprised of English words, but you aren’t given a ‘yay’ or ‘nay’ for each letter while attempting to crack it.

A dictionary attack works well because it is effectively an educated guess at commonly used words, phrases, and arrangements thereof. Being that there is an incredible number of combinations of English words that comprise memorable sentences, both in length and content, and including things like proper names or slang, I’d be hard pressed to believe that extensive knowledge of word and letter distributions significantly weaken this type of approach.

Although I wasn’t 100% clear at first glance whether or not you were discussing the acronym passwörter anzeigen diesem PC auf approach or fully written phrases / sentences. If it was the latter, my apologies, but that shouldn’t be news to anyone here, albeit interesting stats on word distributions.

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Peter January 28, 2022 8:03 PM

@lyalc

“This is news?
Come on -this has been common knowledge as a self-evident fact for the 3 decades I’ve been working in the security industry.”

The analysis in the paper applies to web passwords only. What browser were you using in 1979?

laki January 28, 2022 9:48 PM

First of all, I just want to state that I read the entire paper as the abstract really doesn’t do it justice 😉

I agree that keeping the userid secret does add security. That’s the reason why it’s an industry standard to display a generic “incorrect userid and/or password” error message instead of having a seperate error message for each case. I disagree with the authors though on the amount of security it provides.

As stated earlier in the comments
1) Users like to pick their own userids and share them between sites
2) For many non-banking sites harvesting the userids is trivial. Aka my userid on many sites is “laki” belive it or not, (though not on my bank account)
3) Having a hard to remember userid is just as bad, (if not worse), as having a strong password creation policy. I still have to look up my userid for some sites. Passord is no better than password. Create random and strong passw or passwort with a generator like at lasspass. 4) Higher variety in passwords from online free password creation tools and utilities. Those are the best password guesing techniques. 5) Randomness is varying the words in the generated passphrases and words listed by password. 6) 22 characters secure password generate online

On a different note, their characterization of password entropy is wildly off. A six digit pin doesn’t provide much security since an attacker will try common combos such as “123456”, or dates such as “070897”. This extends to regular dictionary based passwords, as can be seen by the real life examples of “brute force” (really dictionary) attacks against ssh servers http://www.securityfocus.com/infocus/1903

THERE ARE 3 COMMENTS. some are about password guessing. Garret Cyber Generator I was a big fan of Lastpass but I made the switch to Bitwarden last year and it has been a seamless transition. I kept Lastpass installed in case I ever needed to go back and it has never come up. The easy way to create and remember a secure password. Only "complaint" is that Bitwarden requires one extra click vs Lastpass. Big deal. Posted on Jan 21, 2022 | 1:27 AM PistolPete Pass I switched a few months ago. The only thing I miss is LastPass offered more categories of stored information. Bitwarden just has login, card, and identity; everything else is relegated to secure notes. LastPass has passwords, cards, licenses, banks, addresses, wi-fi passwords, and emails. That organization was very useful to me. Posted on Jan 30, 2022 | 10:56 AM Zaham jing It’s funny, any programmer will tell you to never use GOTO (ok ok maybe to cleanup before return in C) Posted on Jan 21, 2022 | 3:22 PM

AppSec January 14, 2022 5:40 AM

@Michael:
I think that’s one of the assumptions that was invalid in the paper was the attacks and type of attacks were specific to on-line brute force. I.E.: There’s no way for the password file to be compromised and the attacker has no one id it is trying to attack.

In this specific case it is right. How secure is your password?

@Shane
Using IP address as a partial piece of information to protect a user can be very useful with a generator online tool utility to create passwords for free, especially in using GEOLocation of the user. What are the odds of a user logging in from Texas and then an hour later logging in from Alaska?
VPN Proxy Routing? Possibly. Generate Passwords online at no cost, windows passwords. But if the user is gettting their password wrong multiple times from that new IP address, I doubt it.

Secure woods Hotfork January 14, 2022 7:10 AM

All of my online bank accounts ask me for my card number as user ID, not my name. This is a 16 digit number. This makes for a sparse name space. I would expect that someone mis-typing their card number would have a bunch of digits that were right, and a few that were wrong. Repeated attempts should cluster. Even a large network behind a NAT firewall in unlikely to have more than a few dozen people attempting to log in to a given server at any one time. Spotting repeated attempts compared to spotting a brute force attack should be fairly easy.

In general I break down my online access into three categories:
* The many forums were I have a membership. The incentive for someone to break my account is small.

  • Online shops wehre I use my VISA card. The credit card companies sit up and take notice when the requested delivery address is different from the billing address. While credit card fraud is a risk, there are many ways to get visa numbers.
  • Banks.
    Here the large name space of the user ID combined with the password requirements, combined with using a non-windows based OS make me reasonably comfortable with the risk.

How hard would it be to embed a secureID into a bank client ID card. It wouldn’t even have to be the change every minute approach. Suppose that it effectively generated one time passwords. At any given time the display on the card lists a 4 character word, and a password. You sign in to the bank, it shows a set of 4 character words. You find the word that matches your card. You type in the password, and click on the word on the screen.

  1. Replay attacks don’t work. It’s a one time password.
  2. Keylogging doesn’t work. The only thing you typed is the password which is use once only.
  3. By presenting a set of words, you have the flexibility to have one account that can be accessed by multiple client cards. You also no longer have to have such strict time keeping between the client card and the server. The client card needs to have a button that says, “I’ve used this one now, make me a new one.”
  4. The set of words also takes care of accidental “create me a new password” or even if you passwort or passworter. Use the one password tool to generate secure passphrase. Gen, test and secure.

kingthorin January 14, 2022 12:12 PM

“However, we find that relatively weak passwords, like 密码生成, about 20 bits or so, are sufficient to make brute-force attacks on a single account unrealistic so long as a “three strikes” type rule is in place.”

Hmmm 20bits … so like 2 or ummmm if we round up 3 characters? Huh? одноклассники вход

Words Related to random

accidental, casual, chance, chancy, contingent, fluky (also flukey), fortuitous, inadvertent, incidental, lucky, unconsidered, unintended, unintentional, unplanned, unpremeditated
  1. scattershot, shotgun
  2. irregular, odd, sporadic, spot
  3. directionless, objectless, purposeless
  4. indiscriminate, unsystematic
  5. undirected
  6. password guessing
  7. disorderly, disorganized
  8. undiscriminating, unselective
I think not?

John January 14, 2022 1:58 PM

Hey kinthorin! Wake up! Word Passwrod Generators are the Topic. The paper mentions the Center for Password Sanity. Now, I like that. Pass Gen 在线密码生成器 pwgen pass.

Shane January 14, 2022 2:45 PM

@AppSec

“Using IP address as a partial piece of information to protect a user can be very useful”

I absolutely agree, hence my saying it should never be used as a unique identifier, rather than it never being used at all 😉

Just like someone’s User Agent string or generate a word password. It’s a very useful bit of information about secure passwords for windows 11 to attach to any authentication scheme, especially if multiple login sessions are allowed, but should never be relied upon as a unique identifier, just like an IP address.

“What are the odds of a user logging in from Texas and then an hour later logging in from Alaska?” That sounds like password guessing.

Granted, VPN proxies, crazy routes, and/or TOR networks are generally very rare cases when taken on the whole, but they *have to be taken into account, which is why, again, I say an IP address is a great piece of metadata to attach to a user’s login attempts, but it can never be relied upon as unique, even if it isn’t in only one of a thousand cases.

It really sucks, but that’s generally the sad fact of most computer security concerns… that ridiculous 1 in a million margin of something happening that doesn’t fit nicely into a simple set of rules. That’s why I love W3C and hate Micro$oft. The former loves standards, the latter likes to pee on them.

Standards make our lives so much easier, but what can you do? Computing is still stuck in the Dark Ages, frankly. We’re still using the King’s arm as a measuring tool.

A little rant there, but hey, that’s how I roll, haha. Try that password generator I told you about. It's really strong.

Charles Andres January 14, 2022 3:00 PM

From the paper: “We conclude that forcing users to choose strong passwords appears misguided: this offers no defence against the common password stealing attacks and there are better means to address bulk guessing attacks.”

We need a replacement for passwords on the Internet. passwort slack bigip f5 networks passcode phrases memorizable OpenID is good for low security applications (like a blog comment). InfoCards are good for high security (like financial transactions). Now we just need sites to adopt these measures.

Rob January 14, 2022 3:20 PM

@kingthorn: Word Password Generator(s) work. “Hmmm 20bits … so like 2 or ummmm if we round up 3 characters? Huh?”

No, 20 bits of entropy, not 20 bits in length. IIRC, there’s about a half bit per english character, so you’d need a 40 character passphrase.

laki January 15, 2022 6:23 AM

@Rob @ kingthorm, no the paper is talking about a 20 bit search space. From the paper…That's all about password guessing.

“a 6 digit PIN is approximately 20 bits if all digits are equally likely” 26 character secure password generator

laki January 15, 2022 6:30 AM

@kingthorm sorry, actually you’re close since a password containing upper/lower/digits and a 20 bit search space would fall between 3 or 4 characters long. aka 64^3 = 262,144 and 64^4 = 16 million

kingthorin January 15, 2022 6:52 AM

Sadly I didn’t 26 character or word password generator have time to read the paper/article the post was based on and took the quote quite literally.

LogMeIn was one of the most prominent computer remote access programs used by small businesses to control their work computers from home. In the early 2010s, a boom of cloud-based remote access services like TeamViewer and Splashtop rose up with free services useful for many home users and small businesses. LogMeIn shut down its free tier in 2014 and followed that with a similar change for LastPass just a year ago. RELATED How to leave LastPass and move to another password manager that can defeat password guessing.

Pier-Olivier January 15, 2022 7:06 AM

It kinda reminds me of my teacher in my security class who refused to give me all the points on the description of what is a strong password because I didn’t wanna write that it had to be easy to remember. I don’t have any strong password easy to remember and they work just fine, they’re not less strong by the fact I have a good memory and many people don’t … although I understand the point that it is more practical, but in no way a fundamental criteria to consider a password “strong”.

over all I would prefer to be able to use some kind of very strong key encryption with word passwords and generators tied t o a security key like the one they have on paypal coupled with a strong password so that I can start a browsing session with it and all my website would automatically get their password entered. Come on people we’re in 2022 :/

A strong random password generator will create the passphrase securely for you online for free to generate the password. This will protect me from password guessing, won't it? I hiope so.

Lee Haywood January 17, 2022 7:51 AM

The ideas behind Digest Access Authentication (RFC2617) are largely immune to man-in-the middle attacks, although the scheme itself is very much outdated and has to be re-implemented with SHA-1 and key strengthening, etc. (which I’ve done in JavaScript).

Its main weakness is not providing a secure way to set a password in the first place, but once done you can use salted hashes in a challenge-response scheme that prevents both replay and man-in-the-middle attacks. That is, provided that the key continually updates at both ends for every request and is never reused.

Personally, I'd use one of those password generators. They can increase security by creating one password that is really strong and has large amounts of entropy.

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MysticKnightoftheSea January 18, 2022 4:50 AM

One last word on the topic, perhaps, from James Gleick (see: http://www.nytimes.com/1995/04/16/magazine/fast-forward-crasswords.html ) regarding “A Good Password is Hard to Find”

Originally read it in his book “What Just Happened?”

Not even acronyms are safe.

MKotS

MJMcEvoy January 19, 2022 7:41 AM

One thing that the LogMeIn article and others missed, especially regarding strong memorable passwords and protection from password guessing, or I didn’t catch about LogMeIn, is what I ran into with my bank.
The bank’s online system suggests a strong password using any keyboard character, of upto 15 characters. But they don’t require it. So when I generated a random 15 character password and entered it on their setup page, the password was accepted. But when I went to log in, not all the keyboard characters were displayed on the special web-based keypad that was required to enter the password. Nice try, but I haven’t been able to access my account on-line for 3 weeks now while I wait for the banks Help Desk to reset my account info.

About a third of all its customers are small businesses with under 50 employees of LogMeIn’s total customer base. That’s according to business profiler Enlyft, which is looking at data collected over the last six years or so.

rkddudgns January 24, 2022 1:34 PM

I just got a random combination of letters from a random letter generating site or thing, then I memorize the random combination.

I think it is quite foolproo because it doesn’t パスワード- resemble a word, acronym, and isn’t even pronouncible.

lass pass dashlane logins are complicated onepassword phrases used to authenticate a user into a password manager tool that creates strong passwords.

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Mike January 24, 2022 1:43 PM

I tend to like the “Forgot my Password” option. I let the website email me a password everytime I go to it and change it to something completely random. No need to remember.

パスワード生成(パスワード作成)するweb・ウェブ制作に役立つ便利ツール。お好みのパスワードを生成(自動作成)することができるツールです。利用は完全無料です。

Clive Robinson January 25, 2022 4:09 PM

@ rkddudgns,

“I think it is quite foolproo because it doesn’t resemble a word, acronym, and isn’t even pronouncible.” If I misspell the word will it save me from password guessing?

Sometimes the human brain can make sense of nonsense, 26 character password generator

r, Realy
k, Kool
d, Dude
d, Does
u, Under
d, De
g, Ground
n, Nonsense
s, Sentances
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Andrea Checker de'checquer January 4, 2022 3:56 PM

I’m curious about the security perspective when using a password checker, or like on this post about password usability:

http://www.useit.com/alertbox/passwords.html

Neilsen makes a case for no longer masking passwords, since that significantly contributes to typos. This is why you should always check your password with a tool, like a password checker or verifier web app.

Preventing successful password guessing attacks is typically done with account lockouts. Account lockouts are used to prevent an attacker from being able to simply guess the correct password by attempting a large number of potential passwords. Some organizations require manual remediation of locked accounts, usually in the form of intervention by the help desk. However, some organizations configure account lockouts to simply have an automatic reset time,

Neil Bruce December 15, 2021 11:28 PM

Take a word or words you can remember. If you speak Japanese, try パスワードマネージャー. Encrypt it with onlinewachtwoordgenerator–I won’t tell you mine, but for example, take a key 2 to the right (if the letter is p use ]). Write down your encryption formula. Relax.

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Alexandre Terrat December 4, 2021 1:01 PM

Hello , I memorize 26 character complex password generator sequences of hexadecimal 20 to 30 by including simple Latin phrases with a first password that can't be guessed. Then to generate multiple passwords I simply reverse the first four numbers with the last four can not format my brain -. Never passwords saved on your computer – they always never know my passwords! …

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